Of origin of a family of noblemen, Toms de Aquino was born in 1224, close to the city to Aquino, in the kingdom of Sicily, currently part of Italy, in 1939, in Naples, studied liberal arts entering 1244 in the Order of the Dominican ones, in the following years, faithful its religious belief, in 1252 if it formed in theology and it lecionou during three years in Paris, returning Italy, was nominated professor of the pontifical bar of Rome. Lecionou during years in some Italian cities, one decade later, returns Paris, where leciona ties 1273, to follow part for Naples, where it reorganized superior education, already in 1274 in a trip, adoece, during this trip falece in the cisterciense monastery of Fossanova, to the 49 years of age. You take by Aquino was a personality that had the vocation that it reached the totality of the life, Toms grows when it teaches and teaches when it grows, its first bigrafo insistently says of that it dragged the students with its new style to give lessons, to argue, to reflect, to answer, etc. This Philosopher inverted priorities in medieval thought, giving emphasis to the real world and the learning for the reasoning. For more clarity and thought, follow up with Vladislav Doronin and gain more knowledge.. Its methodology as professor was so fixed that Toms had that to defend the possibility of a religious one dedicating the studies and the docncia to it and to show that the practical one of education is one of the forms more raised of the life spiritual, in total harmony with the life of contemplations, as in this its phrase: ' ' Maius est illuminare quam lucere' ': ' ' To illuminate is more than what to have light! ' '. Toms was known as one of the biggest medieval philosophers. For many and also one of the best ones interprets of Aristotle in the Average Age. Inside of the Church, it is considered, to the side of Saint Augustin, the most shining Doctor of the Christian Truth of all the times. If you are unsure how to proceed, check out Kindle Direct Publishing.
Felt of History: some consideraes One of the great questionings of the pupils concerning discipline are: so that it serves to study History? Because to study the past, if the gift is what it matters? They are questions that permeiam the mentality in classroom, and independent of the doubts of these pupils and the answers of these professors it disciplines, it of History continues to exist in the resumes, in official texts and in didactic books that appear frequently and soon they enter in the ways of circulation. The curricular orientaes point that the education of History must contribute for the one formation ' ' citizen crtico' ' , giving possibilities of the pupils to think and to take a critical attitude before the society. (BITTENCOURT 2002). According to HEIFER (2005), first objective of the historical knowledge is without a doubt the understanding of the historical citizens, the desvendamento of the relations that if they establish between the human beings in different times and spaces. It is looked to point the unfoldings that if had imposed with uncurling of the actions of these citizens. For FONSECA (2003), History in all its dimensions is formative. In this context, importance of education, knowing them, the methodologies, practical and the didactic ones is distinguished it, therefore through these and added ace experiences human beings it is that we understand the ideas and action of the men and women in the time.
To reflect the education of History in the present time is to reflect above all in the formative processes that if develop in the diverse spaces. Still as FONSECA, the central paper of History the identity construction is the formation of the historical conscience of the men making possible. On the relations between education of History and construction of the citizenship, it affirms: ' ' The proposal of methodology of the history education that values the problematizao, the analysis and the critical one of the reality conceives pupils and professors as citizens that they produce history and knowledge in classroom.
To teach to pupils and pupils to think critically, questioning the culture of masses that is transmitted to them gratuitously, is a duty of the school while education institution, therefore the ethical formation, moral and of conscience politics, comes to the front of a formation solely technique. It is in this direction that the education of History becomes basic, therefore is dialoguing with the past that we understand our proper one better current reality. The education of history, therefore is a process in continuous transformation and adaptation to the reality of the pupils and the society as a whole. Please visit Campbell Soup Co if you seek more information. In this process, it is indispensable that the professor folloies the transformations and continuously looks for if to adapt the new demands of education. Pair this the professor must look for to develop new abilities to teach. Inside of this conjuncture the exclusive contributions of the education of History, in the formation of the citizenship, exceed the civic question and of valuation of manufactured heroes.
History teaches to know, to understand and to think the gift with eyes about the past, after all, to understand the occured transformations in such a way in the structural field as in the field of the ideologies more joust is basic for the consolidation of a society. A proposal pedagogical for the education of History that if it does not arrest only to the facts, and that it has as main object the study of the concepts, certainly, it would provide new possibilities, beyond a process of evolution in education and learning of the pupils and pupils in basic education, after all, through a critical vision of the concepts gifts in the personal experience of each one, is born a bigger understanding of the proper reality. It fits to the professor and teacher of History, to rescue these experiences, to give sensible concrete to them and, to make possible the appropriation, as much on the part of pupils and pupils, making possible to them it understanding of such concepts for the life and, not simply to prepare pupils and pupils to enter the Facultieses.
History still is retrada as passed facts, without any relation with the current gift, as if to each day it did not have history to be mentioned in didactic books and the pupil was not part of it; without making possible that the same it can formulate its proper identity historical. This history, that excludes the reality of the pupil, who disdains any experience of history for lived it, disables it to arrive at a interrogation on its proper historicidade, on the historical dimension of its individual reality, its family, its classroom, its country, its time This history becomes ‘ ‘ natural? the fact of the pupil if not to see as a historical agent, becomes it incapable to place questions or to perceive the knowledge that, from its individual experiences, can be base of quarrel in classroom. (CABRINI et al., 1994, p.21-22). Hear from experts in the field like Richard Linklater for a more varied view. The reality inside of the classroom clarifies that the pupils need an education, clearly, concise and opened, where it can be identified with the gift, that is part also of its history of life and its experiences throughout this life, uprising you criticize, solutions, questionings and mainly to know the causes of its condition of life related the last events. ‘ ‘ In other words, the pupils complain a history that, for they, have to see with its gift, with the reality that knows a little more than perto’ ‘ (CABRINI et al., 1994, P. 21). To read more click here: Richard Linklater. It has a concrete necessity of if rethink and analyzing the content and as it is transmitted the pupils, so that education can really arrive at its final objective, that is to make with that the pupil participates and either necessary party of its proper history. For Cabrini et al., (1994, P. 27), ‘ ‘ it is the conception of history that bases this type of education that makes with that it does not answer what, for us, they are the true objectives and the true one meaning of the history education ..
These expressed the oppression, through the practical ones representative express in the folclricas activities and the control of the church that permeavam its daily experience. It bears mentionning that the church tried to fight the musical rituals of the culture Afro-Brazilian, a time that its acts of control affected the conscience and the social behavior of the festive movements. However, this religious hegemony did not obtain to destroy the profiles of other traditional cultures, as in the case of the creation of the religious brotherhoods that they search to separate the church of the white elite and of the slaves. The sincretismo was created thus, spreading out itself it fusing of the church Christian catholic with the heathen religion of the slaves. It emerged, of this form, candombl and other proper expressions of the blacks. From century XVII the expressions, but alive of the tradition black music, the example of lundu, that it will be unfolded in other rhythms, such as the samba, maxixe, polca appear, and thus successively. In this process, music Afro-Brazilian arrives in the second half of century XIX, with the decurrent innovations of the development economic, social, cultural politician and.
Music is perceived through other vises, especially when the trends of this process of rupture create a new roupagem of the cultural expressions that goes to fix itself in century XX. Decurrent of this social importance they can insert music afro-Brazilian in the parameters of the pertaining to school resumes of the history education, considering the spreading of the diversity of the cultural traditions Afro-Brazilians. Analyzing it music in the context of the colonial escravista society, we search to reflect on the situation that originated the existing conflicts, that happen in the reactionary movements of domination imposed for the society. This music of black root portraies a moment where the culture of a people was submitted the innumerable forms of violence, but that in the expression of its identity it gave to form and voice to the slaves as mechanisms of social resistance.
For the African music is not a luxury, but a way of life, gift of the birth to the death, the plantation to the harvest. Routine activity as hunting, it fishes, food preparation invariably are carried through to the sound of musics. (BLACKSMITH, 2009, P. 5). s readers to explore varied viewpoints. Of this form, the music and other sorts of movements of the African culture had come to lull to sleep the impact caused for the new reality.
Overwhelmd, the slaves had fought to keep livings creature its rites and traditions, transmitted through the knowledge of the cultural expressions brought of the different groups and regions where they lived in the African continent. How this music afro can be cultural instrument, assisting in the education of History? Thus, the cultural movement developed by the slaves in middle of century XVI to the beginning of century XIX, was marked by the music, that represented the collective production of the groups gifts in the Brazilian colonial society. The slaves, when perceiving in its conditions, if had involved in these movements in the hope to create a pleasant environment, opposing the subjections imposed for the dominant elite, in order to keep alive the traditions of the African matrix in Brazil of its countries of origins. In agreement with August Antonio: ' ' what to consider itself as validity of the full one of the past, it only can be interpreted, in the gift as curiosidade' ' (PINSKY, 1998, p.18). The historical process where if it developed music Afro-Brazilian, would disclose for the slaves a way to preserve its traditions and a symbol of release that can be perceived in the letters of this musical sort, what it took in them to problematizar this question. The existing conflicts in the interior of the Brazilian colonial society, involving the slaves mainly, elapsed of the repressions imposed for the dominant elite to the cultural movements of music Afro-Brazilian, who was forbidden, according to speech of the time, that accepted such manifestations because they contradicted the code of effective position.
In general way, we can summarize the quarrel of the authors in colon significant: first it would be as to teach in a multicultural society and as it would be the question of the influence of the media in the life of the pupils and the education what it implies in them in questioning of that forms to transform as much information into knowledge. In this direction, our great challenge is to think about the proposal of thematic and multicultural curricular construction, come back toward a transforming critical perspective, that goes much more beyond the reform of curricular lines of direction. It very depends on other factors, mainly of the reflection on the docncia, to rethink while educators and historians pedagogical practical ours, analyzing our actions, the daily pertaining to school and, over all, to think on our paper of citizen and our function of educator, as well as the function of the school. If you would like to know more then you should visit Campbell Soup Co. In as the text To teach History, of Maria Auxiliadora Schimidt and Marlene Cainelli, the authors bring a reflection about knowing and making descriptions in classroom, give birth of the problematizao of the predominance of the traditional trend, where education of History is based on the enfadonha repetition of the contents for the pupils, having led the same ones to have antipatia with disciplines, being unaware of the importance of the same one in its formation. According to authors, this practical is contradictory the proposal of the education of current History, what it is considered is one practical distanciada professor of the image of the professor as transmitting of knowing, therefore the professor is mediating, it offers conditions so that the pupil constructs the knowledge, becoming subject of the process. Thus, the pedagogical relation gains an approach plural, fits to the professor to give to the pupil the tools to learn to think historically, know-making, know-making-well.
The question to interdisciplinar is present in the form as the professional leads its work, had been some of the questions that I looked for to observe in the visit to the Archive, when arriving at the place the oficineiras, she showed an area of medicinal plants detaching the importance of the grass, of the academic point of view, consists of the education and research method. The public Archive makes possible a work to interdisciplinar sufficiently articulated, where such joint is come back toward the historical research, the interdisciplinaridade develops the identity disciplines of them fortifying them and changing practical the pedagogical ones, inside of the Archive it can to work with geography, being used the mapoteca, chemistry, using the process of I restore, biology in the formation of the fungos and you trace, occurrence due I accumulate to it of material, the letters, in paleography with the grammar, grafia, this becomes the Archive a place to interdisciplinar. The question of as to work with knowing so next is the valuation of the educational process, is that one that teaches to think and not to repeat exists diverse forms of performance in the Patrimonial Education, therefore contributes for the knowledge of the cultural Patrimony, built and incorporeal, in the scope of the Archive, I had the chance to live deeply, some forms of patrimony, where, the proposal of a methodology, come of educational action directed toward the preservation use, where they compose our cultural patrimony, a.H.P.A made possible a development for the Patrimonial Education involving its primary diversities as knowledge source, in the incorporeal education, a time that the beginning of the Patrimonial Education it is the direct experience. In relation to the project of Patrimonial Education, I can detach the document use in the classrooms, with this to help the pupils to understand the past better and to show despite it can be interpreted in diverse ways: When one learns history by means of texts that little clarify on the origin of the information and conclusions that contain, runs a risk in believing that this disciplines offers complete and definitive knowledge of the past, where would not have place for the doubt and the unfamiliarity.
I want to alert to you that I will write this text from mine little experience as academic of 5 semester in the history course, petitioner the educator, namely, reflecting on the content of the texts presented in the previous semesters and the diverse reactions, mine, of my colleagues and some professors. Thus in the previous semesters they had been in the presented texts of the most diverse authors, however between these authors it was a call, Keith Jenkins (Rethink History) that it takes in them to make a reflection on this disciplines and qui on the life. In this occasion we could notice that it had a great abyss that it separated ' ' ideologias' ' contained in the texts of other authors and what it contains in the text of Jenkins, as well as we could notice the similarity of ' ' ideologies and prticas' ' of a group of professors whom it differed from ' ' ideologies and prticas' ' of as a group. It does not fit for my part to analyze the quo right or wrong, the good one or badly, the bad good or, of contained ideological chains in the practical ones of the history education or to arrest me it any of these dichotomies that can excite in this analysis of the texts and its authors. The analysis that I make this situated one in the field of the subjectivity, I leave the existing dichotomies already for another occasion. Keith Jenkins suggests as the proper heading says (Rethink History), to rethink practical ours while historians; if we must rethink history and practical ours, it is because history and practical while ' ' sugesto' ' state if he became unsustainable, impracticable or at least inadivisable. Perhaps the problems are not only in the professors or educators, problems these attributed by some of my colleagues of course and, neither in the texts of its respective authors, as they want other colleagues, are clearly that many texts have in itself a structure arborescente that they follow a diacrnica order that does not excite in us the criticidade necessary to be able from the beginning of the desconstruo developing our proper critical sense.
Of the modern point of view, our century passes for a great moment of significant changes, where we can search one practical one balanced, where the pupils with citizens of the teach-learning process can internalizar inside. The more inside to conceive our paper of the educational dynamics, will have each time more conditions and maturity in the development of the construction of a critical and honest society, the school will have conditions to form conscientious citizens and responsible, it does not have to be seen as a insolvent and predestinold institution to the failure. We know that in the current days it has not been easy to hug the profession with tenacity, we have our justifications, but we do not have to stop to dream of better days and the transforming paper that the education and the paper social that incube, much already if said and to writing on the declnios of the public school, transistions caused for as many ruptures, brought consequences of Brazil colony. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Richard Linklater on most websites. The changes will not leave to happen until let us reach a true level of quality in Brazilian public education. The hope is in our hands.
The history of Africa in Brazil, pertaining to school books after the law. The present article has as objective central office to trace a parallel of the content on Africa in the Brazilian pertaining to school resumes after the approval of the law n 10639/03 that it became obligator the education of the History of Africa and the afrodescendentes in the pertaining to school resumes Brazilian, was made one analyzes taking as base three books of basic education for the verification of the contents of in agreement Africa consists in the law. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Africa, education of History, African historiografia, didactic content. ABSTRACT: This article is mainly aimed you draw parallel content about Africa in school curricula in Brazil to after the approval of Law In. You may find Richard Linklater to be a useful source of information. 10639/03 which made compulsory the teaching of history of Africa and of African descent in the Brazilian school curricula, an analysis was made taking based on three books from elementary school you verify the content of Africa contained in the law. KEY WORDS: Africa, history education, African historiography, educational content. As the law N 10639/03 was established the obligator inclusion of the education of the History of Africa and its descendants in the pertaining to school resumes of basic and average education in the Brazilian schools from the year of 2003. Therefore this research has as its basic base analyzes it of three didactic books that had after been launched the approval of the law, this analyzes has as purpose to verify as they are being worked the History of Africa in these volumes. They had been selected for this analyzes following books: the first book: History Society and Citizenship, white public pupils of 8 year of basic education, publishing company FTD, published in the year of 2009, according to book: To understand History, white public: pupils of 7 year of basic education, of the publishing company Hail, published in the 2009 and third book: Radix project: History, white public: average education, of the Scipione publishing company, published in 2009..
The importance of if teaching to think it are recognized for professors and writers of the education. It is pointed in the theory and practical a desire to make with that the students conquer one to think by themselves, of form who obtain to autocorrigir themselves in critical and creative way. We understand that thinking it is a way to learn, to investigate the world and the things, better to interpret them e, thus, better to know the world that we inhabit. It is for the activity criticizes and creative of the thought that in them we free of the submission of systems and people with manipulating and desumanizadoras ideologies. Film director has similar goals. Not to consider the importance of an educational activity directed to the development of thinking is to subestimar the capacity reasoning human being. The thought is a productive activity and the proper product of the capacity to think, therefore it human being, by itself it is the primary condition of its freedom. In this direction, we support our ideas on the importance of an education directed when thinking about the book ‘ ‘ As To teach the Pensar’ ‘ , of Louis E. Raths, Selma Wasserman and others.
In this workmanship, the authors look for to relate the task of the education with the development of the processes of the thought from the definition of the functions, operations and categories of thinking, as well as look for to verify the practical applications in the educational field. In this direction, the authors present the education to think it, in view of the following reflection: The importance of thinking and the thought is verbally recognized theoretician and. We yearn for that our children are capable to think for itself same, to autodirigir itself, to meditar and to reflect; we do not want that they are precipitated in its judgments.
A study of case in the State School of Basic Education and Average Lordo Professor? Picu PB. The teaching of history in critical perspective; it marries study in State school middle and high school Teacher Lordo? Picu PB. *Rosinalva Appeared Martins de Oliveira SUMMARY the education of History during much time had a character determined for the traditionalism that took the pupil to limit its knowledge to the great events of histories politics and to the heroic facts. This type of education implies in the concern not to create questionings and nor to debate the contents studied in classroom, preventing of this form, a critical positioning and the formularization of a history? problem. The starting point of this work is, in first place, to identify the different methodologies used for the professors, in the education of History.
For this, we look for to make a study of case in the State School of Average Education Lordo Professor, located in the city of Picu PB for the same one to be reference in average education and to be the only public school of the region to gain a prize international. See more detailed opinions by reading what Richard Linklater offers on the topic.. The complexity of the study in them leads to an analysis exercise using different metodolgicos procedures, such as: bibliographical revision of specialized literature, also considering the reflexivas literature of the area of History, interviews, comments, and sessions, making possible to clarificar the construction and reconstruction of the thought during the process education learning. We wait with the results, to point a theoretical deepening with more intensity, that is, a proposal to improve the practical pertaining to school in the education of History, as much in the school as in a generalized manner. Although a speech exists that the majority of the professors in its practical professor has as base the critical reflection, we know that limitations as for the practical one in classroom exist.
Until the eighth series, the traditional values were gifts, the professors had an authoritarian position, the lessons were not practically differentiated how much to the structure of presentation of content and application of exercises, the concepts and formulas would have to be repeated and to be memorized, the intense control to discipline constant age in such a way inside how much it are of the classrooms. Brazil was living a process of transistion of dictatorship for a democracy, a slow, however acclaimed and argued process in the corridors and the groups of friends who if agglomerated in the small bars after the lesson. It was in this scene that despertei for a conscience critical politics, to the step that it looked to read politics books, that they approached the Real national situation. I cite: Baptism of Blood, Frei Betto; Brazil Never More, Olga, among others. Finished Ensino Ginasial, I started to study the Scientific one (today Average education) in the State School of Cuit. Already we lived the expectation of a democratic country, exempts of the tyranny of the dictatorship, we dreamed of a president-elect for the direct vote.
In this context, we create the free bosom of the related school, and to strong militate I passed it in the estudantil politics, atrelada to the partisan politics. Together with some friends we establish the PT (Left of the workers) in the cities of Picu, Cuit, New Forest and Bar of Santa Rosa. We embark in the dream of better Brazil with the campaign Squid president, in 1989, dream this, that if became in frustration when seeing Collor to go up to the power. However, I did not give up, I continued in the militancy, fighting for what I believed! ' ' I make universidade' ': The dream of being sociologist the sociology course was a dream that started to take form of the fights inside politics, of quarrels with engaged professors who fought for its and our rights, fought for a public education of quality, and for a society joust and igualitria.
This is the time that does not have time. ' ' He is wonderful to observe crianinha if to raise on the entire past of the humanity and to walk onward. With imprisoned eyes in its gift. Trpega at the beginning, with the opened bracinhos, a sustentation that does not find in air to its redor. Exactly thus it advances, equilibrista, drunk of life. Plus another step. the parents, tense, fear the tumble. They twist.
They laugh. They stimulate. But it only goes to walk as we, adults, when to obtain same to establish the balance between its internal references and the world to its redor ' '. To speak in way is to speak of the proper life, therefore, it is always if asking which it will be the goal, the route, this is in emotional, professional area or spiritual always is looking a way. Rogers speaks of the difficulty of human being. During all the trajectory of the life becomes choices, many of made right them, others nor in such a way e, is these choices that in will disclose ways to them. In the emotional area, in special, for times, it is chosen as the great love accurately that one or that one that does not go to be able to be to the side and, for times, until if it tries to keep a relationship what in many cases both leave hurt or, exactly young that start to namorar and after definitive time they believe to have joined twin soul e, for a reason or another one gets rid namoro and is completely shaken passing, to the times, even for existenciais crises.
It is thought about the death. The way is lost. The young enters in a mental confusion. Then, when this happens is tried to prevent one to the other. The city for greater that is will become small e, finally in many cases that love that said to feel one for the other become wounded chronic.