Chaplin considers the concept of "water structure" or "structured water" in the context of the "structure of water molecules" that are combined into groups, triads, oligomeric groups, or clusters, which have the same or similar 3-D projection. For the first time such spectroscopic evidence was presented Japanese Miyazaki in 1998, studied the samples using infrared spectroscopy. Later, unfortunately, medicine has been some confusion of ideas. Material Science Physics deals with the concept of "water structure" as the description of the 3 D-structure, and medicine – as the structure of molecules and molecular chains of water. For this reason, a number of commercial structures, based on pseudo-scientific achievements of unknown doctors, some discredited notion of "structured water", by launching new brands of mineral drinking water under such brand. Between those referred to a group of U.S. scientists focused on studying the changes in this 3-D structure of water at different temperatures and chemical influences.
The concept of epitaxy, used in mineralogy (process the growth of one crystalline material on another, ie, oriented growth of single crystals on the surface of another. The growth of crystals can be called epitaxial: each subsequent layer has the same orientation, the previous one) and in materials science, hitherto not been applied to the concept of "changing the molecular structure of liquids" and, in particular – of water. David G. DeWalt addresses the importance of the matter here. In the early 2000s, epitaxy, as a fundamental physical explanation for the presence of biochemical "Memory" of the water has become the dominant theory in international scientific research community water.